Pham van Dong: Ho Chi Minh. For his actions on that day, Butterfield received the Silver Star medal. The northwest monsoon (the dry season), from mid-October to mid-March was relatively drier with lower temperatures. The main trail continued southward into eastern Cambodia and then emptied into South Vietnam at points west of Da Lat. Official and Government Documents: Wilson Center Digital Archives: International History Declassified documents … [2]:127, Two types of units served under the 559th Group: "Binh Trams" (BT) and commo-liaison units. [7]:303 This was made possible by the close-out of "Operation Rolling Thunder" and the commencement of "Operation Commando Hunt" in November 1968. [11]:59 "Steel Tiger" was only one of several escalations approved under National Security Action Memorandum 328. By early-March 1971 the situation changed. DocsTeach. The following day, the three aircraft departed from Udorn filled with tons of a mixture of nitrilotriacetic acid and sodium tripolyphosphate[citation needed] stuffed into cloth bags designed to break apart on impact. In December 1974 the first phase of a limited PAVN offensive in South Vietnam began. Updates? Hide Caption . Ho Chi Minh Trail, elaborate system of mountain and jungle paths and trails used by North Vietnam to infiltrate troops and supplies into South Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos during the Vietnam War. Osborne, Milton. Use this page to find primary sources and document-based teaching activities related to the Vietnam War. The vehicles were then unloaded and reloaded onto "fresh" trucks at each station. In 1959 the North Vietnamese created Transportation Group 759, which was equipped with 20 steel-hulled vessels to carry out such infiltration. Auch ein großartiger Trail, um schöne Fotos zu machen. Ho Chi Minh seeks Vietnamese independence in Paris (1919) Ho Chi Minh on the founding of the Inodchinese Communist Party (1930) A report into French atrocities in Vietnam (1933) Ho Chi Minh recalls his conversion to Leninism (1967) Ho Chi Minh calls for Vietnamese unity against the French (February 1930) Viet Minh call to arms against the Japanese (March 1945) Ho Chi Minh’s declaration … Efforts were gradually made to improve the trail, which by the late 1960s could accommodate heavy trucks in some sections and was supplying the needs of several hundred thousand regular North Vietnamese troops active in South Vietnam. Saigon is now called Ho Chi Minh City in honor of the late North Vietnamese leader. The operation began at coordinates YA 747922 and the final extraction in Laos was at coordinates YB 726078. By 1973, trucks could drive the entire length of the trail without emerging from the canopy except to ford streams or cross them on crude bridges built beneath the water's surface. It had Bernard. The single oil pipeline that had once terminated near the A Shau Valley now consisted of four lines (the largest 20 cm [eight inches] in diameter) and extended south to Lộc Ninh. The region is based upon a logistical route used by the North Vietnamese Army and the Viet Cong to provide manpower and equipment. PAVN responded to U.S. nighttime bombing by building the 1,000 kilometer-long Road K ("Green Road") from north of Lum Bum to lower Laos. During "Commando Hunt IV" (30 April–9 October 1971), U.S., South Vietnamese, and Laotian forces began to feel the North Vietnamese reaction to General Lon Nol's coup in Cambodia and the subsequent closure of the port of Sihanoukville to its supply shipments. More sources on this topic are linked from the list of Documents page in Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History. The sensor system was not sophisticated enough to detect enemy personnel, so the effort was given up until "Operation Island Tree" in late-1971. Auf dem Ho-Chi-Min Pfad muss man ein wenig aufpassen, da sind mir mal Spaziergänger mit einem Hund entgegengekommen. THE WAR FOR THE HO CHI MINH TRAIL A thesis presented to the Faculty of the US Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE by; GREGORY T BANNER, MZAJ; USA B.S., United States Military Academy, West Point, New York, 1979 DTIC S ELECTE O•V 17 1993 A' Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 1993 Approved for public … Eventually, the bulk of the trail was either asphalted or hard packed, thus allowing large quantities of supplies to be moved even during the rainy season. Troops walk the Ho Chi Minh Trail in the Truong Son Mountains, which form the 750-mile-long spine of Vietnam, stretching along much of the country's western … As early as December 1961, the 3rd Truck Transportation Group of PAVN's General Rear Services Department had become the first motor transport unit fielded by North Vietnamese to work the trail and the use of motor transport escalated. While separate units were tasked with security, engineering, and communications functions, a "Binh Tram" provided the logistical necessities. [13]:85–91 The operation evolved into Operation Hardnose, in which CIA-backed Laotian irregular reconnaissance team operations took place. In 1970, the same fate befell another camp at Dak Seang. The target itself was a road cut sharply into a hillside on a long traverse. The pilot had failed to load enough fuel and was forced to refuel at a Laotian base on the return trip to Udorn. B. The Ho Chi Minh Trail not only connected North and South Vietnam during a brutal war but also aided Vietnamese soldiers. Pre-First Indochina War, the routes were known as the "Southward March", "Eastward March", "Westward March", and "Northward March". Primary Menu. [12], The intricacies of Laotian affairs, and U.S. and North Vietnamese interference in them, led to a mutual policy of each ignoring the other, at least in the public eye. [5]:27 "Barrel Roll" continued in northeastern Laos while the southern panhandle was bombed in "Operation Steel Tiger". Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. It was decided that the experiment had not justified the risk, and the project was cancelled. [6]:218 By the last phase of "Commando Hunt" (October 1970 – April 1972), the average daily number of U.S. aircraft flying interdiction missions included 182 attack fighters, 13 fixed-wing gunships, and 21 B-52s. Testing on the project began in September above the Kong River watershed that ran through the Steel Tiger and Tiger Hound areas. Übersetzung bewerten 1 "Hilfreich"-Wertung. It was composed of three parts: strings of air-dropped acoustic and seismic sensors collected intelligence on the trail; computers at the Intelligence Collection Center (ICS) in Thailand collated the information and predicted convoy paths and speeds; and an airborne relay and control aircraft which received the signals from the sensors and routed aircraft to targets as directed by the ICS. By spring 1972 the Americans and South Vietnamese realized that the enemy was planning a major offensive, but did not know where or when. [9], There were five large base areas in the panhandle of Laos (see map). Considering that it is a primary source, I find this to be credible. Nightlife in Ho Chi Minh City, Places to go in Ho Chi Minh City at night. [citation needed], In 1961 U.S. intelligence analysts estimated that 5,843 enemy infiltrators (actually 4,000) had moved south on the trail; in 1962, 12,675 (actually 5,300); in 1963, 7,693 (actually 4,700); and in 1964, 12,424. During 1971 PAVN took Paksong and advanced to Pakse, at the heart of the Bolaven Plateau region of Laos. By the end of 1968, bombing missions over southern Laos had climbed 300 percent, from 4,700 sorties in October to 12,800 in November. [11]:44 On 20 March 1965, after the initiation of Operation Rolling Thunder against North Vietnam, President Lyndon B. Johnson gave approval for a corresponding escalation against the trail system. Tour list. [7]:339–340, Initially, NVA fuel was carried by porters, but this was inefficient and time consuming, and thus highlighted the need to extend the pipeline at a much faster rate. Photos: The Vietnam War . A total of 14 PAVN divisions were now committed to the offensive. The number of supply and maintenance personnel dropped, mainly due to increased use of motor and river transport and mechanized construction equipment. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Ho-Chi-Minh-Trail, Spartacus Educational - Ho Chi Minh Trial, United States History - Ho Chi Minh Trail. The Spectres "established control over and successfully suppressed, to a certain extent at least, our nighttime supply operations". Trailforks scans users ridelogs to determine the most popular direction each trail is ridden. BenGoorts hat im Nov. 2017 eine Bewertung geschrieben. Departure Date. Starting south of Hanoi in North Vietnam, the main trail veered southwestward to enter Laos, with periodic side branches or exits running east into South Vietnam. The crews had been told that the North Vietnamese would rush hundreds of personnel to the drop site and remove the "soap" before the rainfall that was required to activate the chemicals. Colors indicate trail is missing specified detail. The only way the invasion force managed to extricate itself from Laos was through the massive application of U.S. air support. A good flowing trail network will have most trails flowing in a single direction according to their intension. Erlebnisdatum: Dezember 2018. it: “We wired the Ho Chi Minh Trail like a drugstore pinball machine, and we plug it in every night.” Official claims for Igloo White’s success were extraordinary: the destruction of over 35,000 North Vietnamese and Pathet Lao trucks, each carrying some 10,000 pounds of supplies destined for the communist insurgency in South Vietnam. They were later collected downstream by nets and booms. Home. Primary Source Sets Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen A letter from Ho Chi Minh to Harry Truman in 1946 regarding the US involvement in Vietnamese independence from France. The Ho Chi Minh trail, known within Vietnam as the “Truong Son Strategic Supply Route,” was an elaborate system of mountain and jungle trails linking North Vietnam to its allies in the South Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos. North Vietnam also announced in October that it would observe a seven-day truce from January 27 to February 3, 1968, in honor of the Tet holiday. The targets on those two missions were at the north end of A Shau Valley, in South Vietnam, but were unsuccessful. Skip to secondary content. The signing of the Paris Peace Accords seemed to bring the conflict in Southeast Asia to an end. The first arms delivery via the trail, a … Fall's interview who knew most about Ho Chi Minh and Vietnam back then. Due to the efforts of the PAVN 592nd Pipelaying Regiment, the number of pipelines entering Laos increased to six that year. The incursion started on 25 November and ended 1 December. The following year, Khong Sedone fell to the North Vietnamese. In March, General Văn Tiến Dũng launched "Campaign 275", the success of which prompted the general to push Hanoi for a final all-out offensive to take all of South Vietnam. Ho led the Vietnamese nationalist movement for nearly three decades and was a key figure in the post-World War II anti-colonial movement in Asia. [17] In 1967 Senior Colonel (later General) Đồng Sỹ Nguyên assumed command of the 559th Group. In the early days of the conflict the trail was used strictly for the infiltration of manpower. [30]:225 After an ineffective attempt to halt the offensive, Saigon fell to North Vietnamese forces on 30 April 1975.[30]:133–135. North Vietnam’s name for the trail was the Truong Son Strategic Supply Route, after the … Ho Chi Minh Trail is a map featured in Battlefield Vietnam. The "Nguyen Hue Offensive"—better known as the "Easter Offensive"—was underway. [24][7]:317–361 Unfortunately for the South Vietnamese, U.S. ground troops were prohibited by law from participation in the incursion, and the U.S. was restricted to providing air support, artillery fire, and helicopter aviation units. Primary source documents included on this site generally come from the holdings of the National Archives and are in the public domain, except as noted. [6]:218, Due to the increased effectiveness of "Commando Hunt", North Vietnamese transportation units usually took to the roads only at dusk with traffic peaking in the early morning hours. [8]:8–70 The 559th Group "flipped" its line of communications to the west side of the Trường Sơn mountains. The Best Film Archive, 1975. [7]:369 This was the first U.S. aircraft shot down by a SAM that far south during the conflict. May 9, 2016 - Ho Chi Minh Trail Primary Source Documents #vietnam #hochiminhtrail #primarysourcejunkie [29], Command then devolved upon PAVN Major General Hoàng Thế Thiện. The famous Ho Chi Minh Trail was a primary route for moving North Vietnamese supplies into South Vietnam. Ein Mensch, eine Nation, eine Epoche, eine Sache. Later in the day, rain activated the "soap" and the initial reports were that the entire road had washed into the valley. How does his request align with stated U.S. policy? "Project Popeye" was an attempt to indefinitely extend the rainy season over southeastern Laos by cloud seeding. The answer came on 30 March 1972 when 30,000 PAVN troops, supported by more than 300 tanks, crossed the border and invaded Quảng Trị Province. Coordinated anti-aircraft fire made tactical air support and resupply difficult and costly, with 108 helicopters shot down and 618 others damaged. …the supplies moved over the Ho Chi Minh Trail, originally a network of footpaths and dirt roads (often paved after 1967) through communist-controlled areas in Laos and Cambodia. Two A-1E Skyraider aircraft provided air cover. Declassified: Authority NND 873541. Includes maps, diagrams, and three student readings. [25]:358, PAVN forces began to squeeze in on the main line of the ARVN advance. Cover Image: Marines on Patrol Duty in Vietnam, ca. The area through which the system meandered was among the most challenging in Southeast Asia: a sparsely-populated region of rugged mountains 500–2,400 metres (1,500–8,000 ft) in elevation, triple-canopy jungle and dense tropical rainforests. [2]:88, After the initiation of U.S. naval interdiction efforts in coastal waters, known as Operation Market Time, the trail had to do double duty. And, that was a combat job just like driving a truck in Iraq is a combat job, because they were under fire. [5]:27–28, Political considerations complicated aerial operations. Thanks to improvements to the trail system (including opening new routes that would connect to the Sihanouk Trail in Cambodia), the quantity of supplies transported during 1965 almost equaled the combined total for the previous five years. Schau dir 348 Fotos und 66 Insider-Tipps an und erfahr alles Interessante dazu. PAVN continued a campaign to clear the eastern flank of the trail that it had begun in 1968. Personnel interdiction was abandoned by early-1969. Why would his request not be met considering the characterization of Ho Chi Minh by Operations Officer Archimedes Patti? Ho Chi Minh, founder of the Indochina Communist Party (1930) and its successor, the Viet-Minh (1941), and president of North Vietnam (1945–69). United States officials had only estimates of its enemy's capabilities; intelligence collection agencies often conflicted with each other. Colonel Vo Bam of North Vietnam was tasked to “Organizing a special military communication line to send supplies to the revolution in the South and create conditions for its development.” (Prados, 1999, p 9) The purpose of the trail was to bypass the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone. [23] As early as 1969 PAVN had begun its largest logistical effort of the entire conflict. [28] Jockeying for control of more territory, both sides flagrantly violated the ceasefire and open hostilities began anew. On Thanksgiving evening, a traditional turkey dinner was delivered by helicopter to the troops in Laos by order of President Johnson. Cameron Paterson describes the history and usage of the infamous trail. Der Trail ist unter Umständen nicht leicht auszumachen - wird aber bald erkennbar, da er über kleinere Stufen und Wurzelpassagen führt. The print version of this textbook is ISBN: 9781472842534, 1472842537. The name of this trail was given by the Americans and was taken from Ho Chi Minh, the leader of North Vietnam. The Ho Chi Minh Trail was named after Ho Chi Minh and was a military supply route used by the Viet Minh to send supplies from … Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The trail was a combination of truck routes, and bicycle and footpaths. BA 609 was important due to a fine road network that made it possible to transport supplies during the rainy season. Transcript of Ho Chi Minh's Letter to U.S. President Harry Truman Source-Dependent Questions What was Ho Chi Minh asking President Truman for in the telegram? On 14 December 1964, the U.S. Air Force's (USAF) "Operation Barrel Roll" carried out the first systematic bombardment of the Hồ Chí Minh trail in Laos. Traffic on the trail was little affected by repeated American bombing raids. Supply convoys moved in both directions. That night, at a party at one of the local CIA watering holes, the C-130 crews and the CIA operatives celebrated the successful mission. Ho Chi Minh was born in Vietnam in 1890. It was named by the U.S. after North Vietnamese president Hồ Chí Minh. Save up to 80% by choosing the eTextbook option for ISBN: 9781472842510, 1472842510. They also provided support for the Lao government.[13][14]. [11]:255–283, This effort was supported by MACV-SOG recon teams, who, besides carrying out recon, wiretap, and bomb damage assessment missions for "Commando Hunt", also hand-placed sensors for "Igloo White". Address: 92 Nguyen Huu Canh Street, Ward 22, Binh Thanh District, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. [9], Human labour, pushing heavily laden bicycles, driving oxcarts, or acting as human pack animals, moving hundreds of tonnes of supplies in this fashion was quickly supplanted by truck transport—using Soviet, Chinese, or Eastern Bloc models—which quickly became the chief means of moving supplies and troops. When it rains—which it does a lot of in Phong Nha—the dirt Trail gets very muddy. [1]:202 The trail ran mostly in Laos, and was called by the communists the Trường Sơn Strategic Supply Route (Đường Trường Sơn), after the Vietnamese name for the Annamite Range mountains in central Vietnam,[2]:28 and the communists further identified the trail as either West Trường Sơn (Laos) or East Trường Sơn (Vietnam). William J. Duiker: Ho Chi Minh. [4], Parts of what became the trail had existed for centuries as primitive footpaths that enabled trade. Within this BT there were: 25th and 27th Engineer Battalions; 101st and 53rd Truck Transport Battalions; 14th AAA Battalion; two infantry companies; 8th Guide Battalion (soldiers to take troops and trucks from one station to the next); three stores companies; a communications company; a medical care unit; three teams of surgeons; a quarantine unit; and a workshop to repair trucks. The critical stretch was in Laos, which was supposedly neutral but which in actuality was one of the major battle areas of the war. First, the portions of the Ho Chi Minh Trail in North Vietnam leading to Laos became the Ho Chi Minh Super Highway. "Lam Son 719" did manage to postpone a planned PAVN offensive against the northern provinces of South Vietnam for one year. Both North and South Vietnamese were to maintain control in the areas under their influence and negotiations between the two nations, possibly leading to a coalition government and unification, were to take place. Hyperion, New York 2001, ISBN 0-7868-8701-X. This video worksheet allows students learn about the Ho Chi Minh Trail. It was a combination of truck routes and paths for foot and bicycle traffic. [7]:182 A June 1966 DIA estimate credited the North Vietnamese with 1,000 km (600 mi) of passable roads within the corridor, at least 300 km (200 mi) of which were good enough for year-round use. Ho Chi Minh Trail Adventure offers mountain biking or Jeep trips; (011) (84-4) 828-2150. Mr. Christopher Nicolson. Teaching activities on this site have received the CC0 Public Domain Dedication; authors have waived all … [1]:202 According to the United States National Security Agency's official history of the war, the trail system was "one of the great achievements of military engineering of the 20th century". The route south was the Ho Chi Minh Trail. A good flowing trail network will have most trails flowing in a single direction according to their intension. Omissions? Contains links to documents such as the Declaration of Independence, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, Ho chi Minh Letter to LBJ, and the transcript of a speech titled Program for Communist China. [1]:108, 133, In 1959, Hanoi established the 559th Transportation Group under the command of Colonel (later General) Võ Bẩm to improve and maintain a transportation system to supply the Viet Cong uprising against the South Vietnamese government. [citation needed], On the ground, the CIA and the Royal Lao Army had initially been given the responsibility of stopping, slowing, or, at the very least, observing the enemy's infiltration effort. A revelation for U.S. intelligence analysts in late-1968 was the discovery of a petroleum pipeline running southwest from the northern port of Vinh. He ranks among the most famous and influential politicians of the 20th century. The print version of this textbook is ISBN: 9781472842534, 1472842537. [25]:359, South Vietnamese troops were poorly led and the elite Ranger and Airborne elements had been decimated. The documentary was made nearing the end of the Vietnam War. The replacement units arrived on 29 November. Hotels in der Nähe von Ho Chi Minh Trail Museum: (6.89 km) JW Marriott Hotel Hanoi (10.92 km) Lotte Hotel Hanoi (7.86 km) InterContinental Hanoi Landmark72 (8.31 km) Crowne Plaza West Hanoi (10.94 km) Dream Hotels & Apartment; Sehen Sie sich alle Hotels in der Nähe von Ho Chi Minh Trail Museum auf Tripadvisor an. However, the students did not … The effort failed to halt the fall of Quảng Trị City on 2 May, seemingly sealing the fate of the four northernmost provinces. Martin Großheim: Ho Chi Minh. [6]:37 In 1969, 433,000 tonnes of ordnance fell on Laos. The last U.S. forces departed in March 1973. Subjects: Social Studies - History, U.S. History, World History. John Schlight, in his A War Too Long, said of the PAVN's logistical apparatus, "This sustained effort, requiring the full-time activities of tens of thousands of soldiers, who might otherwise have been fighting in South Vietnam, seems proof positive that the bombing of the Ho Chi Minh Trail had disrupted the North Vietnamese war effort. [26]:75, The fighting in southeastern Laos was unlike any yet seen in the Vietnam War, since the PAVN abandoned its old hit-and-run tactics and launched a conventional counterattack. [21], This round-the-clock aerial effort was directed by "Operation Igloo White", run out of Nakhon Phanom, Thailand. Eventually this new route extended past Siem Prang and reached the Mekong River near Stung Treng.[2]:382. 1965 Der Ho Chi Minh Trail führt Sie durch Berge, Täler, Dörfer und Landschaften, um die beste Landschaft in Saigon zu sehen. The trail shaved nearly five months of time off of the trip and was used as a secret weapon of sorts. In May 1959, Group 559 was established to maintain and upgrade the Ho Chi Minh trail, at this time a six-month mountain trek through Laos. The PAVN first launched massed infantry attacks supported by armor and heavy artillery to crush ARVN positions on the flanks of the main advance. Bernard B. Addition, there is the unknown tonnage dropped … In reality, it was a sophisticated logistical network consisting of paved roads, C&C outposts and even a fuel pipeline system. Further information on Viet Minh operations in Laos: Further information on the PAVN logistical system in Cambodia: Further information on the interdiction campaign: Further information on the electronic sensor system: Military Assistance Command, Vietnam Command History 1965, Annex N, p. 16. Aircraft, commanded by Captain John Butterfield, was seriously damaged by ground fire, Colonel Quang and Phuoc... 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